Modal verb + have + past participle

Lesson/Unit Summary: The target structure is learnt through meaningful contexts. Two activities are conducted in this lesson to allow students to use the grammar structure to make deductions. In the first activity, students have to read three stories about a burglary and try to speculate how likely somebody got into the apartment. The second activity is an investigation of a murder. Students have to play the role of a detective and discuss with their group members which suspect is most likely to be the murderer. They have to explain their decision using the target grammar item. This lesson is fun as students can use the grammar item meaningfully to complete a simulated police investigation. 

Level of Students: Senior Secondary 

Lesson Duration: 55 minutes

Learning Objectives:

At the end of this unit, students should be able to:

  1. Use modal verb + have + past participle to make deductions about past events
  2. Demonstrate an understanding of using different modal verbs to express different degrees of certainty

Lesson Plan: Modal verb + have + past participle (Senior Secondary)

Teaching Materials: 

Useful Websites:


We would like to express our gratitude to Wong Tsz Yu, Renee for sending the project team her original lesson plan and allowing us to make modifications to it. 


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To cite this resource:

Chau, K. Y., Wong, T. Y. R., & Lee, F. K. J. (2020). Modal verb + have + past participle. Retrieved from

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